Vision and Memory
The Eye is the Window to our Minds.

Eye Animation
Optics Animation
A great way to 'see' our cones in action
Photons of light focus upon the retina causing the twisting (isomerization) at a double bond of two carbon atoms within the rhodopsin molecule.
The signals are then transmitted to the brain for interpretation.


Gary Matthews (Rhodopsin in action)
  A color mixer movie, flash  
A human-made eye!  
  What is the Chemistry behind the Camera?
  What are the similarities and differences between a camera and the eye?
A better representation of the eye
The Photoelectric Effect is demonstrated in a Digital Camera. A charged-coupled device replaces the age-old film camera. Incident photons of visible light strike the silicon pixel and generate electrons via the photoelectric effect. One electron is released from the silicon for every photon striking it. The electrons are trapped within the pixel because of a positive voltage applied to the electrodes. The number of electrons that are trapped is proportional to the number of photons striking the pixel. Each pixel in the CCD array accumulates an accurate representation of the light intensity at that point in the picture.
CCD pictures I, II, III
Where does the Signal Go?
Molecular Expressions
Electrical Signals to the
Cortex. . .and Beyond
Circuit Diagrams---In a circuit, high energy electrons are forced through the circuit by the Voltage produced in the battery.
These electrons transfer their energy to the filaments
in the bulbs and return to the battery.
        A Dry-Cell battery    

Animation of an Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
The Electrical Circuit in our Bodies I II III
How do neurons work? I, II, III
  Neuron Physics
Simple Physical Principles
Chemical Reactions
Electrical Conductivity