Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
Discovering the Nucleus
of the Atom

Quarks are the fundamental particles of the universe. . .


A-mass number
Z-proton number
N-neutron number

Mass Number
is not Atomic Mass

Mass Number is the number of Nucleons in the Nucleus

Atomic Mass is an average of the masses of isotpoes in nature.
    The Periodic Table


The Strong Nuclear Force. . .
is with you

Nuclear reactions and
The Mass Defect of the Nucleus
and Nuclear Binding Energy
  We need to know the masses of these particles

    Semiempirical Binding Energy Formula

The Volume Effect - The nuclear force is due only to a few nearest neighbors. On the average the binding energy is the same in all nuclei.
The Surface Effect - Nucleons on the surface have fewer neighbors than those inside. Surface nucleons reduce the binding energy.
The Coulomb Repulsion Effect - Each proton repels every other proton in the nucleus. This is a reduction in the binding energy.
The Symmetry Effect - Lowers the binding energy. Any large assymmetry between N and Z for light nuclei reduces the binding energy.
Radiation and Radioactivity
What is radiation?

Small particles
E-M waves

Madame Curie
Nuclear Decay I, II, III


Radioactive Decay Law

hmm. . .
        The History of Radioactivty
Nuclear Science Glossary
ABC's of Nuclear Science
HyperPhysics-Nuclear Science
Nuclear Education
RadioIsotopes (Berkeley)
Marie Curie I, II
Radioactivity Decay Calculator
TimeLine of Nuclear History
The Law of Radioactivity
Carbon-14 Dating I, II, III
Radiation Detectors

Carbon-14 Radioactive Dating