San
Diego State University
Physics 197
tonydude@yahoo.com
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Syllabus
Test Questions 3,4,
Final
Chapters. . (16, 17, 18, 34), (35,
36, 37, 38,
39), (40, 42, 43,
44, 45, 46)
Chapter
37Interference
Young's DoubleSlit Experiment (Wave Nature of Light)
One of the most important
experiments of wave theory is that of Thomas
Young's double slits. It is a clear example of the diffraction of
light conducted with essentially basic scientific equipment. Thomas Young
was a not only a physicist but also a physician and and Egyptologist,
who was responsible for deciphering the Rosetta stone. He devised an experiment
in the early 1800's that proved that light is a wave. The experiment has
been used subsequently to show that wave behavior exists in many other
areas of nature and therefore it is worth spending a little time going
into the experiment in detail.
courtesy of: Molecular
Expression
DoubleSlit Theory
HyperPhysics
Tony's DoubleSlit Notes
First
Run Without
Diffraction With
Diffraction Nslits
Intensity
Tony's Intensity Notes
Waves or Particles?
Young or Newton? "It was inconceivable
that particles of light coming through the slits
could cancel each other in a way that would explain the dark fringes."
Light is most certainly a wave phenomena according to this experiment!
Phasors
Phasors
Thin Film Interference
real
calculation
Thin
Film CalculationHyperPhysics
Tony's Notes
Feynman's QED
Chapter
38Diffraction
Diffraction
Pattern around a Penny!
Chapter
39Special Relativity(<don't
click there)
You are traveling at 50 mph in a pick up
truck.
You throw a ball at 50 mph to someone on the side of the road.
What speed is the ball traveling when the person on the road catches it?
We all know that one would simply add (or, subtract) the two speeds. .
.right?
This is what Galileo
presumed . . .
The
Laws of Mechanics are the same in all inertial
reference frames.
Looking for the
elusive Aether.
How does light
travel through ‘empty’ space?
Is space empty?
What does a vacuum really
mean?
No, it does not mean you have to clean the house!
Step up Michelson
and Morely. . .or here
You
want to derive the Equations of Relativity?
Can
anyone prove this nonsense?
Muons?
Chapter
40Quantum Physics
Chapter
41Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Mechanics is the study of matter
and radiation at an atomic level.
Intro to Quantum Mechanics
Electron (Matter) Waves!
Electrons demonstrate Interference.
Electrons are Waves?
Actually, light and matter exist as particles;
what behaves like a wave is the probability of where that particle will
be. The reason light sometimes appears to act as a wave is because we
are noticing the accumulation of many of the light particles distributed
over the probabilities of where each particle could be.
The WaveFunction?
David Griffith's
Interpretation
Electrons act like particles when we are looking. . .and
like
waves when we are not looking!
It is Physically
impossible to measure simultaneously the
exact
position and exact linear momentum
of a particle
At the atomic scale of quantum mechanics, however, measurement becomes
a very delicate process.
Let's say you want to find out where an electron is and where it is going.
How would you do it?
Get a super high powered magnifier and look for it?
The very act of looking depends upon light, which is made of photons,
and these photons could have enough momentum that once they hit the electron
they would change its course!
It's like rolling the cue ball across a billiard table and trying to discover
where it is going by bouncing the 8ball off of it; by making the measurement
with the 8ball you have certainly altered the course of the cue ball.
You may have discovered where the cue ball was, but now have no idea of
where it is going (because you were measuring with the 8ball instead
of actually looking at the table).
Particle in a Finite Box
Games physicists play. . .
the torture box. . .don't ask
Could this be an electron in an
atom?
Classically the particle (electron) is permanently bound.
However, Quantum
Mechanics insists that there is a probability
that
the particle (electron) can be found outside the well!
Whatever. . .
Barrier
PenetrationTunneling
Alpha and Beta Radiation
Popular
Mechanics articl
Schroedinger's
Cat
Even Schrödinger was unhappy with the implication of his findings.
"I'm
sorry that I ever had anything to do with quantum theory,"
he
is said to have lamented to a colleague.
One of the principal consequences
of uncertainty is that you cannot specify the exact state of a particle
without somehow interacting with it.
Chapter
42Atomic Physics
Chapter
43Solid State Physics
Chapter
44Nuclear Structure
A Simple Calculation
Nuclear
Binding Energy
The
History of Radioactivty
More info
Tunnel Theory of Alpha Decay
Disintegration Energy
Chapter
45Nuclear Fission and Fusion
Chapter
46Particle Physics and Cosmology
Test
#3
INTERFERENCE
Test Question #1
Using a diagram, describe or explain
how Young utilized the DoubleSlit
to discover that light travels in waves.
Please be detailed in your explanation and your diagram.
How was it possible that Young was able to measure the very small wavelengths
of light?
Grading: Diagram, Equations, Explanation for wave
theory and how to find wavelength.
or
Using a diagram, describe or explain
how Michelson used his Interferometer
to measure the
index of refraction of a gas in a cylinder. Please be detailed
in your diagram and explanation.
Grading: Diagram, Equations, Explanation for wave
theory and how to find index of refraction.
(20 points)
You will
choose one of the above two for the test.
Solution
INTERFERENCE
and DIFFRACTION
Test Question #2
Chapter 37#34,39,59,
or 60 (I will change numbers but,
not the problem)
Chapter 38#15,28,
or 33 (I will change numbers but,
not the problem)
(20 points)
I will choose one
of the above for the test.
Solution
RELATIVITY
Test Question #3
Chapter 39#8,9,15,21,23,25,38,48,57,
or 73 (I will change numbers
but, not the problem)
(15 points each)
I will choose
two of the above for the test.
Solution
Solution
QUANTUM PHYSICS
Test Question #4 and
#5
Chapter 40Explain using Diagrams, Equations, Words
and Logic. . No derivations necessary!
1) How did the idea of Blackbody
Radiation lead to the Ultraviolet
catastrophe and Planck’s
Hypothesis?
2) How did the Photoelectric
Effect demonstrate that the classical wave theory
of light is wrong and that the
quantum nature of light was correct? Demonstrate by using #65.
3) How did the Compton
Effect demonstrate that the classical wave theory
of light is wrong and that the
quantum nature of light was correct?
4) How does de Broglie's
Theory and the DavissonGermer
experiments resolve the conflict between
the particle theory and the wave theory? Demonstrate
by using #57
(15 points each)
You will
choose (1 and 3) or
(2 and 4) of the above for the test.
Solution
Solution
Good Luck, everyone.
Test
#4
Chapter 41 
12,38,53
Chapter 44  29,34,38,62
Chapter 45  9,16,43,56
Chapter 46  31,37,47
DiMauro's
Final
Due Monday, July 7, 2003
1) Derive the Lorentz
Transformation Equations (39.11) (Hints:
1,2)
or, Alternatively. . .Chapter 39 #65
Please be detailed as needed and explain each step in words.
(25 points)
2) Create Figure 44.8,
using the semiempirical mass formula. (Hints:1,2,3)
I
want you to recreate this graph, using excel. You will turn in a graph
as well as a chart.
Please do NOT copy your friends graph or chart. I would like to see a
table. Please provide a short explanation.
Use the Hints to guide you.
First, I plotted the Volume term.
Second, I plotted the Volume term  Surface term.
Third, I plotted the Volume term  Surface term  the Coulomb repulsion.
.
.
.
I want you to play with the graph. Demonstrate that you know
what is going on.
It does NOT have to be exactly like mine. Use your imagination.
I will grade the graph and data based upon: Completeness, Clarity and
Composition
(25 points)
Converging
Lens
Java Applets
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Atomic
Spectra applet 
